Accounting is one of the ways to monitor and communicate the financial status, health, growth or decline of a company, business or organization to all the concerned parties involved. Not only does it assess the assets, liabilities and cash flow, but it also projects the future or possible financial trend.
The comprehensive and systematic nature of accounting requires documents be correctly formatted and interpreted to avoid miscommunication in the data being presented. Because of this, there are a lot of samples and templates, such as expense forms and other documents, available to guide in accounting needs.
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Types of Accounting
Accounting is a broad term that is used to define the monitoring and analysis of a certain function, in order to uphold certain set of standards for a company or organization. While accounting used to exclusively describe financial monitoring and balancing, it has branched out into financial, management, governmental, tax, forensic, project and social accounting. Each type of accounting has corresponding forms and documents needed.
Financial Accounting Documents
Financial accounting or reporting is described as the process of creating information for uses outside of the company, the outputs are usually in the form of financial statements. These financial statements follow the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, also known as GAAP, which is a guideline or standardized framework for financial accounting usable in any given industry and jurisdiction.
Four Types of Financial Statements
A financial statement is a formal record of the monetary activities of a company; quantifying the financial strength, health and performance of a company. The following are the four types of financial statements and their crucial parts:
1. Statement of Financial Position
The statement of financial position is also known as a balance sheet, which shows the current financial standing of a company. The crucial parts of a balance sheet are:
- Assets or the things are that owned or controlled by the company.
- Liabilities or the things that the company owes to outside individuals, companies, and businesses, such as loans, and other outstanding payments.
- Equities or the amount that the company owes its owners. An equity shows the amount of the capital that is left when the assets are paid to outstanding liabilities.
2. Income Statement
The income statement is also known as profit and loss statement, which is a summary of the company’s performance with regards to profit and loss over a specific period of time. The crucial parts of the profit and loss statements are:
- Income or how much the company has earned.
- Expense or how much the company has spent.
3. Cash Flow Statement
A cash flow statement is the summary of the movement of cash and bank balances over a specified period of time. The cash flow is divided into the following parts:
- Operational activities
- Financing activities
4. Statement of Changes in Equity
The statement of changes in equity is also known as the statement of retained earnings, which give details on the equity of the business owners over a period of time derived from a lot of factors.
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Basic Accounting Forms and Documents for Businesses
Businesses need forms and documents in order to monitor records or evidences of transactions, and keep internal files that benefit the company as a whole. Forms are documents that have fields ready to be filled out. Usually printed in bulk, forms are common accounting papers since they are easy to monitor and take lesser time to fill up and interpret. There are a lot of different accounting forms for companies and these are some of the most common ones divided into internal and external documents:
Internal documents are forms that are only circulated within the company or respective departments. The primary function of these types of papers are to create copies and to facilitate company monetary flow.
- Purchase Requisition
A purchase requisition is a form that contains data on what kinds of items are being asked by the employees to be bought by the purchasing department for them. A PR usually has a process involved such as certain signatories that are tasked to review and approve the requests.
- Receiving Report
A receiving report or RR is a form that contains information and confirmation on the receipt of requested items, products and services. An RR would need additional reference, such as the purchase order, purchase requisition and sales invoice numbers.
- Check/Cash Voucher
A check or cash voucher is a document that proves an disbursement of money from the company. Attachments like purchase orders, receiving reports and sales invoices are needed and the signatories are in charge of making sure the money being released is the amount on the voucher.
- Delivery Receipt
A delivery receipt or DR is a form that monitors the goods or services done by the company to its customers. When the goods are delivered, the customer or client signs and acknowledges the DR; the signed DR is used by the company as proof of delivery in case of dispute.
External documents are forms that are issued to customers and parties outside of the company for reference, monitoring and documentation. Primarily used as proof of transactions done between the company and the persons involved.
- Purchase Order
A purchase order or PO is issued by the company to suppliers and other businesses that they want to buy products or avail services from. A PO should have the shipment address, products ordered and the quantity, as well as the total amount to be paid. Copies of purchase requisition and the PO are attached to the receiving report.
- Sales Invoice or Official Receipt
A sales invoice or official receipt is sent to the customers for the goods or services rendered. The SI or OR are considered proof of transaction, and are recognized by the government as the legitimate proofs of purchase.
- Billing Statement
The billing statement is a document created when the customer promises to pay at a future time. Upon receipt of promised payment, the sales invoice is given as acknowledgment of payment and completion of the transaction.
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